The name, An-Nahl, of this Surah has been taken from v. 68.
This is merely to distinguish it from other Surahs.
Period of Revelation
The following internal evidence shows that this Surah was revealed
during the last Makkan stage of Prophethood:
- V. 41 clearly shows that persecution had forced some
Muslims to emigrate to Habash before the revelation of
It is evident from v. 106 that at that time the persecution
of the Muslims was at its height. Therefore a problem had
arisen in regard to the utterance of a blasphemous word,
without actual disbelief, under unbearable conditions.
The problem was that if one did so how he should be treated.
VV. 112-114 clearly refer to the end of seven year famine
that had struck Makkah some years after the appointment
of the Holy Prophet as Allah's Messenger.
There is a reference to V 116 of this Surah in VI: 145,
and v. 118 of this Surah contains a reference to VI: 146.
This is a proof that both these Surahs (VI and XVI) were
sent down in the same period.
The general style of the Surah also supports the view that
this was revealed during the last stage at Makkah.
All the topics of the Surah revolve round different aspects
of the Message, ie., refutation of shirk, proof of Tauhid,
and warning of the consequences of the rejection of and opposition
and antagonism to the Message.
Topics of Discussion
The very first verse gives direct and strict warning to those
who were rejecting the Message outright, as if to say, "Allah's
decision has already been made concerning your rejection of
the Message. Why are you then clamoring for hastening it? Why
don't you make use of the respite that is being given to you!" And
this was exactly what the disbelievers of Makkah needed at
the time of the revelation of this Surah. For they challenged
the Holy Prophet over and over again: "Why don't you bring
that scourge with which you have been threatening us! For we
have not only rejected your Message but have been openly opposing
it for a long time." Such a challenge had become a by-word
with them, which they frequently repeated as a clear proof
that Muhammad (Allah's peace be upon him) was not a true
Immediately after this warning they have been admonished
to give up shirk, for this false creed was the main obstacle
in the way of the Message. Then the following topics come
over and over again, one after the other:
- Very convincing proofs of Tauhid and refutation of shirk
have been based on the plain signs in the universe and
in man's own self.
The objections of the disbelievers have been answered,
their arguments refuted, their doubts removed and their
false pretexts exposed.
- Warnings have given of the consequences of persistence
in false ways and antagonism to the Message.
The moral changes which the Message of the Holy Prophet
aims to bring practically in human life have been presented
briefly in an appealing manner. The mushriks have been
told that belief in Allah, which they also professed, demanded
that it should not be confined merely to lip service, but
this creed should take a definite shape in moral and practical
The Holy Prophet and his companions have been comforted
and told about the attitude they should adopt in the face
of antagonism and persecution by the disbelievers.