The Surah takes its title from the sentence, Wa anzalna' l-hadida,
of verse 25.
Period of Revelation
This is unanimously a Madani Surah, and a study of its subject
matter shows that it was probably sent down some time during
the interval between the Battle of Uhud and the Truce of Hudaibiyah.
This was the time when the tiny Islamic State of Madinah had
been hemmed in by the disbelievers and the handful of the ill
equipped Muslims were entrenched against the combined power
of entire Arabia.
In this state Islam not only stood in need of the sacrifice
of Life from its followers, but it also needed monetary help
and assistance. In this Surah a forceful appeal has been made
for the same. This view is further strengthened by verse 10
in which Allah has addressed the believers to the effect "
Those of you who would spend and fight after the victory can
never be equal to those who have spent and fought before the
victory." And the same is supported by the traditions that
Ibn Marduyah has related on the authority of Hadrat Anas. In
respect of the verse: Alam ya'n-i lilladhina aamanu an takhsha'a
qulubu- hum li-dhikrillah-i, he says that 17 years after the
commencement of the revelation of the Qur'an this verse was
sent down to arouse the believers to action. Reckoned thus
the period of the revelation of this Surah falls between the
4th and the 5th year after the hijrah.
Theme and Subject Matter
The theme of this Surah is to exhort the Muslims to spend in
the cause of Allah. At the most critical juncture of the history
of Islam when it was engaged in a life and death struggle against
Arab paganism, this Surah was revealed to persuade the Muslim's
to make monetary sacrifices in particular, and to make them
realize that Islam did not merely consist in verbal affirmation
and some outward practices but its essence and spirit is sincerity
towards Allah and His Religion. The faith of the one who was
devoid of this spirit and who regarded his own self and wealth
as dearer to himself than Allah and His Religion, was hollow
and therefore of little worth in the sight of Allah.
For this object, first the attributes of Allah Almighty have
been mentioned so that the listeners may fully realize as to
Who is addressing them. Then, the following themes have been
expressed in sequence:
The inevitable demand of the Faith is that one should not shirk
spending one's wealth for the sake of Allah. This would not
only be contrary to the Faith but also wrong realistically.
For the wealth indeed belongs to Allah, on which man has been
given proprietary rights only as His vicegerent. Yesterday
this wealth was in other people's possession today it is with
one particular man, and tomorrow it will pass into some one
else's hand. Ultimately, it will go back to Allah, Who is the
inheritor of everything in the universe. Only that much of
this wealth will be of any use to a man, which he spends in
the cause of Allah during the period it is in his possession.
Although making sacrifices for the sake of Allah is commendable
in any case, the true worth of these sacrifices is determined
by the nature of the occasion. There is an occasion when the
power of paganism is overwhelming and there is a danger that
it might subdue and overcome Islam completely; there is another
occasion when Islam is in a stronger position in its struggle
against un-Islam and the believers are attaining victories.
Both these states are not equal as regards their respective
importance. Therefore, the sacrifices that are made in these
different states would also not be equal. Those who sacrifice
their lives and expend their wealth to further promote the
cause of Islam when it is already strong cannot attain to the
rank of those who struggled with their lives and their wealth
to promote and uphold the cause of Islam when it was weak.
Whatever is spent for the cause of the Truth is a loan on Allah,
and Allah will not only return it increasing it manifold but
will also give from Himself the best reward for it.
In the Hereafter the Light shall be bestowed only on those
believers who would have spent their wealth in the cause of
Allah. As for the hypocrites who watched and served only their
own interests in the world, and who least bothered whether
the Truth or falsehood prevailed will be segregated from the
believers in the Hereafter although they might have lived in
close association with them in the world. They will be deprived
of the Light, and they will be counted among the disbelievers.
The Muslims should not behave like those followers of the earlier
Books, whose lives have been. spent in the worship of the world
and whose hearts have become hardened due to negligence with
the passage of time. He cannot be a believer whose heart does
not melt at the remembrance of Allah and does not bow to the
Truth sent down by Him.
The sincere upholders of the Truth and the true witnesses of
the Faith in the sight of Allah are only those believers who
spend their wealth in His way sincerely, without any desire
The life of this world is only a short lived spring and a means
of pride and show. Its sports and pastimes, its adornments
and decorations, its pride of place, its wealth and possessions,
for which the people try to vie with one another, are transient.
Its likeness is of the crop which flourishes and blooms, then
turns pale and then finally is reduced to chaff. The everlasting
life is the life hereafter when results of great consequence
will be announced. Therefore, if one has to vie with another
for something, one should strive for Paradise.
Whatever good man meets with and whatever hardship he suffers
in the world, are pre-ordained by Allah. A true believer is
he who does not lose heart in affliction and is not puffed
up with pride in good times. It is the character of a hypocrite
and disbeliever that he is puffed up with pride when Allah
favors him with His blessings, behaved boastfully and shows
stinginess when called upon to spend in the cause of the same
God Who blessed him, and also counsels others to be stingy
Allah sent His Messengers with clear signs and the Book and
the Law of Justice so that the people may adhere to justice;
besides, He sent down iron also so that power may be used to
establish the Truth and vanquish falsehood. Thus, Allah likes
to see as to who from among the people would rise to support
and succour His true Religion even at the risk of their lives.
These opportunities Allah has created for man's own advantage
and development; otherwise Allah does not stand in need of
others for His works.
Prophets came from Allah in the past, and by their preaching
some people adopted the Right Path, but most of them persisted
in wickedness. Then the Prophet Jesus came, whose teachings
brought about many moral improvements in the lives of the people,
but his community invented monasticism. Now Allah has sent
the Prophet Muhammad (upon whom be His peace and blessings).
Those who affirm faith in him and pass their life fearing Allah's
accountability, will be given by Allah a double share of His
mercy and He will bless them with the Light by which they will
see and walk the straight path among the crooked paths met
with at every step in the life of this world. Although the
followers of the earlier revelation regard themselves as the
monopolists of Allah's bounties, the fact remains that Allah
Himself controls His bounties He may bless with these whomever