Among the reasons for the rapid and peaceful spread of Islam was the simplicity of its doctrine-Islam calls for faith in only One God worthy of worship. It also repeatedly instructs man to use his powers of intelligence and observation.
Within a few years, great civilizations and universities were
flourishing, for according to the Prophet ‘ seeking knowledge is an obligation for every Muslim man and women’.
The synthesis of Eastern and Western ideas and of new thought
with old, brought about great advances in medicine, mathematics,
physics, astronomy, architecture, art, literature, and history.
Many crucial systems such as algebra, the Arabic numerals, and also the concept of the zero (vital to the advancement of mathematics), were transmitted to medieval Europe from Islam. Sophisticated instruments, which were to make possible the European voyages of discovery, were developed, including the astrolabe, the quadrant and good navigational maps.
Quran itself lays down freedom of conscience:
‘There is no compulsion in religion’ [2:256]
The life and property of all citizens in an Islamic state are
considered sacred whether a person is Muslim or not. Racism
is incomprehensible to Muslims, for the Qur’an speaks
of human equality in the following terms:
‘O mankind! We created you from a single soul, male and
female, and made you into nations and tribes, so that you may
come to know one another. Truly, the most honored of you in
God’s sight is the greatest of you in piety. God is All-Knowing,
All Aware.’ [49:13]